Summary: This report provides an overview of systems of production that reduce negative agricultural impacts on the use of soil, water, and biological resources; many highlighted approaches (e.g. maximizing crop residue, enhancing nutrient and water cycles, etc.) regenerate ecosystem resilience and ecosystem services. Planned grazing strategies recognize that it is not livestock per se but the choice of grazing management system and its suitability for the landscape, that leads to positive or negative effects. Holistic Management (HM), which uses timed controlled grazing to replicate the behaviour and effects of wild herds of ungulates in original ecosystems, particularly in semi-arid areas, is the best known grassland management system that uses livestock as a tool to enhance productivity and ecosystem function. HM has been used effectively on different continents to restore grassland ecosystems in the absence of increased rainfall or irrigation.
Neely, Constance L., and A. Fynn. 2013. Critical Choices for Crop and Livestock Production Systems that Enhance Productivity and Build Ecosystem Resilience: SOLAW Background Thematic Report – TR11. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).